Two key aspects of successful integration are access to employment and to adequate services; it is crucial that migrants be able to access both of these fully, without suffering discrimination. Municipalities may be one of the largest employers in their city (indeed, in some cities, they are the largest single employer). They have the potential, therefore, to be a key source of employments for migrants – whether first or second generation. They are also responsible for the provision of the services most significant in migrant integration, including education, housing and, in some cases, health care. This means that municipalities have greater control over their own personnel policy and services than over other levers that may promote integration.
The second module of research of the European Network of Cities for Local Integration Policy for Migrants (CLIP) examined the policies and practices of 25 cities in terms of equality and diversity in jobs and services. The detailed findings of this research are described in a report, Equality and diversity in jobs and services: City policies for migrants in Europe (Council of Europe and Eurofound, 2008). The research team’s key findings and recommendations for policymakers are outlined in this guide to good practice.